Macular hole is an uncommon complication of vitreous syneresis (the alteration of the vitreous which occurs as a result of ageing).
A macular hole is a small hole in the centre of the retina (the eye’s light-senstive tissue). This area is called the macula, and it is this area that gives us our sharp, central vision which we use for reading, driving and seeing fine detail.
The inside of an eye is filled with a gel-like substance known as the vitreous. The vitreous attaches onto the surface of the retina through millions of fine fibres. As we age, the vitreous begins to shrink and slowly pulls away off the retina. In some people, abnormal forces between the retina and the vitreous pull the retina apart, causing a hole.
While a macular hole is treatable using surgery, it must be caught early in order to prevent significant loss of central vision.
A macular hole as it appears on OCT imaging. Notice the edge of the vitreous (the faint line across
the top of the image)is still attached to the retina at the macula, where the hole has been created.